Visualization: Revenue progressivity

Select a state and year (1993-2019) to display a graph summarizing the progressivity (or “fairness”) of state and local revenue to public K-12 schools. The three bars in the graph represent, for a given state in a given year, the percent difference in adjusted state and local revenue between:

  1. Low (10%) poverty districts and zero poverty districts;
  2. Medium (20%) poverty districts and zero poverty districts;
  3. High (30%) poverty districts and zero poverty districts.

Negative numbers indicate regressive funding (low/ medium/ high poverty districts receive less revenue than zero poverty districts), whereas positive numbers indicate progressive funding (low/ medium/ high poverty districts receive more revenue than zero poverty districts). District poverty is measured with U.S. Census data, and the “predicted” revenue estimates used in these comparisons also control for labor market costs, population density, and district size. Note that progressivity estimates are not available for Hawaii and the District of Columbia, as both contain only one government-run school district. For more information on these measures, see our State Indicators Database user’s guide and our annual report. You can also download the full dataset.

Latest News


February 2022: Evaluate K-12 funding adequacy for 12,000 districts between 2009-19. Download the full dataset or see results for your district with the DCD data visualization tool.

Latest Annual Report

The Adequacy and Fairness of State School Finance Systems (fourth edition)

The fourth edition of our annual report presenting findings on effort, adequacy, and progressivity in state school finance systems. Published December 2021. Read the report.

Latest Research Briefs

Ensuring Adequate Education Funding For All: A New Federal Foundation Aid Formula

A proposal for and simulation of a new “foundation aid formula” approach to federal K-12 education funding. Published September 2022. Read the report.