External publications that use SFID datasets/measures (chronological)
Baker, Bruce D., Di Carlo, Matthew, and Oberfield, Zachary W. 2023. The Source Code: Revenue Composition and the Adequacy, Equity, and Stability of K-12 School Spending. Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Baker, Bruce D., and Weber, Mark. 2023. Does School Funding Matter In a Pandemic? COVID-19 Instructional Models and School Funding Adequacy (EdWorkingPaper: 23-736). Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute at Brown University.
Allegretto, Sylvia, Garcia, Emma, and Weiss, Elaine. 2022. Public education funding in the U.S. needs an overhaul. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.
Baker, Bruce D., Di Carlo, Matthew, and Green, Preston III. 2022. Segregation and School Funding: How Housing Discrimination Reproduces Unequal Opportunity. Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Baker, Bruce D., Di Carlo, Matthew, and Weber, Mark. 2022. Ensuring Adequate Education Funding For All: A New Federal Foundation Aid Formula. Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Baker, Bruce, and Weber, Mark. 2022. New Jersey School Funding: The Higher the Goals, the Higher the Costs. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Policy Perspective.
Howard, Marcia. 2022. K-12 Funding: Effort, Adequacy, Progressivity. FFIS State Policy Reports 40(2).
Kenyon, Daphne A., Paquin, Bethany P., and Reschovsky, Andrew. 2022. Rethinking the Property Tax-School Funding Dilemma. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Oberfield, Zachary W., and Baker, Bruce D. 2022. The Politics of Progressivity: Court-Ordered Reforms, Racial Difference, and School Finance Fairness. American Educational Research Journal 59(6): 1229-64.
Rauscher, Emily, and Shen, Yifan. 2022. Variation in the Relationship between School Spending and Achievement: Progressive Spending is Efficient. American Journal of Sociology 128(1): 189-223.
Thymianos, Kristian, Beckwith, Ally M., Saladino, Caitlin J., and Brown, William E. Jr. 2022. State School Finance in the Mountain West, 2019 (K-12 Education Fact Sheet No. 51-3). Las Vegas, NV: The Data Hub at Brookings Mountain West and The Lincy Institute.
University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2022. County Health Rankings 2022. Madison, WI: Population Health Institute, University of Wisconsin.
Baker, Bruce D. 2021. School Finance and Education Equity: Lessons from Kansas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Baker, Bruce D., and Weber, Mark. 2021. Separate and Unequal: Racial and Ethnic Separation and the Case for School Funding Reparations in New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Policy Perspective.
Baker, Bruce D., Weber, Mark, and Srikanth, Ajay. 2021. Informing Federal School Finance Policy with Empirical Evidence. Journal of Education Finance 47(1): 1-25.
Bradbury, Katharine. 2021. The roles of state aid and local conditions in elementary school test-score gaps (Working paper #21-2). Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
Bradbury, Katharine. 2021. Racial and Socioeconomic Test-Score Gaps in New England Metropolitan Areas: State School Aid and Poverty Segregation (New England Public Policy Center Research Report 21-2). Boston: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
Green, Preston, Baker, Bruce D., and Oluwole, Joseph. 2021. School Finance, Race, and Reparations. Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice.
Haltom, Nicholas. 2021. How Adequate and Equitable is K-12 Education Funding in the Fifth District? Richmond, VA: Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
Srikanth, Ajay, Atzbi, Michael, Baker, Bruce D., and Weber, Mark. 2021. “How States Fund Education.” In Bowman, Kristine L. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Education Law. Bethesda, MD: Oxford University Press.
Baker, Bruce D., and Di Carlo, Matthew. 2020. The Coronavirus Pandemic and K-12 Education Funding. Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Baker, Bruce D., Srikanth, Ajay, Cotto, Robert Jr., and Green, Preston C. III. 2020. School Funding Disparities and the Plight of Latinx Children. Education Policy Analysis Archives 28(135).
Garcia, Emma, and Weiss, Elaine. 2020. A policy agenda to address the teacher shortage in U.S. public schools. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.
Sargrad, Scott, Yin, Jessica, Partelow, Lisette, and Harris, Khalilah M. 2020. Public Education Opportunity Grants: Increasing Funding and Equity in Federal K-12 Education Investments. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress.
Weber, Mark, and Baker, Bruce D. 2020. School Funding in New Jersey: A Fair Future for All. Trenton, N.J.: New Jersey Policy Perspective.
Baker, Bruce D., and Chingos, Matthew M. 2019. Toward a Rich Data Future for School Finance Research. AERA Open 5(4): 1-6.
Selected related reports, books, and articles (alphabetical)
Baker, Bruce D. 2016. Does Money Matter in Education? (second edition). Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Baker, Bruce D. 2017. How Money Matters for Schools. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.
Baker, Bruce D. 2018. Educational Inequality and School Finance: Why Money Matters for America’s Students. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Baker, Bruce D. 2021. School Finance and Education Equity: Lessons from Kansas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Baker, Bruce D., Weber, Mark, Srikanth, Ajay, Kim, Robert, and Atzbi, Michael. 2018. The Real Shame of the Nation: The Causes and Consequences of Interstate Inequity in Public School Investments. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University.
Biasi, Barbara. 2022. School Finance Equalization Increases Intergenerational Mobility. Journal of Labor Economics.
Candelaria, Christopher A., and Shores, Kenneth A. 2019. Court-Ordered Finance Reforms in the Adequacy Era: Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sensitivity. Education Finance and Policy 14(1): 31-60.
Duncombe, William, and Yinger, John. 2005. How Much More Does a Disadvantaged Student Cost? Economics of Education Review 24(5): 513–32.
Hanushek, Eric A. 2003. The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies. The Economic Journal 13: F64-F98.
Jackson, C. Kirabo. 2020. “Does School Spending Matter? The New Literature on an Old Question.” In Tach, Laura, Dunifon, Rachel, and Miller, Douglas L. (eds.), Confronting Inequality: How Policies and Practices Shape Children’s Opportunities (165-86). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Jackson, C. Kirabo, Wigger, Cora, and Xiong, Heyu. 2021. Do School Spending Cuts Matter? Evidence from the Great Recession. American Economic Journal 13(2): 304-35.
Jackson, C. Kirabo, Johnson, Rucker C., and Persico, Claudia. 2016. The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 131(1): 157-218.
Ladd, Helen F., and Goertz, Margaret E. 2015. Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Lafortune, Julien, Rothstein, Jesse, and Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore. 2018. School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 10(2): 1-26.
Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong, and Yinger, John. 2014. Education Finance Reform, Local Behavior, and Student Performance in Massachusetts. Journal of Education Finance 39(4): 297-322.
Organizations and projects (alphabetical)
- American Institutes for Research
- Annual Survey of School System Finances (U.S. Census Bureau)
- Education Trust
- Extending the NCES Comparable Wage Index (Dr. Lori Taylor)
- Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy
- Stanford Education Data Archive
- Urban Institute Center on Education Data and Policy
NEW RELEASE OF DISTRICT COST DATABASE AND DATAVIZ TOOL
April 2023: You can download the full DCD dataset with adequacy estimates for over 12,000 districts between 2009-2020 or look up individual districts with our data visualization tool.
Latest Annual Report
The Adequacy and Fairness of State School Finance Systems (fifth edition)
The fifth edition of our annual report presenting findings on effort, statewide adequacy, and equal opportunity in state school finance systems. Published December 2022.
Latest Research Briefs
The Source Code: Revenue Composition and the Adequacy, Equity, and Stability of K-12 School Spending
An analysis of the relationship between revenue composition and the adequacy, equity, and stability of K-12 funding. Published April 2023. Read the report.